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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Nepal
Deepak Subedi*, Krishna Kaphle2
1Paklihawa Campus, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
2Department of Theriogenology, Paklihawa Campus, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Avian Influenza is an economically important, highly contagious and fatal infectious disease of birds caused by Type A strains of the influenza virus of Orthomyxoviridae family. Avian Influenza is primarily a disease of domestic and wild birds however mammals may be affected. It can be classified as Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) on the basis of pathogenicity. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus is circulating in various countries of Asia and World and causing huge economic loss. After first case of HPAI H5N1 in Kankarbhitta, Jhapa in 2009, several other cases have been reported from Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Chitwan, Hetauda, Kavre and other places of the country. To date 255 outbreaks of HPAI in birds are reported from 21 districts of Nepal. After 10 years of outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in poultry, in March, 2019 first reported case of human casualty from H5N1 was reported, which shows passive surveillance of the disease. Poor biosecurity, lack of public awareness, few epidemiological investigation, insufficient quarantine and lack of vaccination are major factors in transmission and spread of disease in Nepal. The aim of this paper is to assess outbreak scenario, transmission, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and prevention and control measures of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

Keywords: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza; H5N1; Nepal; Economic; Zoonotic
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Int. J. Grad. Res. Rev.Vol-5, Issue-3: 194-203